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APA Style : APA Style

A brief guide to APA style, based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. All page numbers listed refer to the manual and several copies of the manual are availabe in the library.

References for Journal Articles

General Format: (p. 198)
Author, A. A., Author B.B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of

            article. Title of Journal, volume number, page 

            range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxx

Include doi number if one is available. Here is a
DOI Primer from the APA Style Blog.

If article was retrieved online and no doi number is
assigned, include the homepage url for the journal.
Include "Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx" (without
quotation marks and without a period at the end of the url)

For articles accessed via the library databases, follow
the guidelines above - include the doi if available, if not,
search for the journal homepage online and include its
url with a "Retrieved from" statement.  If you are citing an
journal that is no longer in print and does not have a
homepage, include the base url of the database that
you used to access the article. Do not include a period
after the url. (p. 192)
Example: Retrieved from

Include the issue number (non italics) in parentheses after
the volume number in the citation if the journal is paginated
separately by issue (page 1 is page 1 in each issue).
Example: 40(2)  [no space between volume
and issue number]

If an online journal does not provide page numbers place
a period after the volume and issue numbers.
(p. 200 online magazine example)

Example References:

(Journal article with doi assigned)
Hudd, S.S., Sardi, L.M., & Lopriore, M.T. (2013). Sociologists

            as writing instructors: Teaching students to think,

            teaching an emerging skill, or both? Teaching Sociology, 40,

            32-45. doi:10.1177/0092055X12458049


(Journal article from library database without doi, current journal
homepage available)
Sastry, J. (1999). Household structure, satisfaction and distress in India

            and the United States: A comparative cultural examination.

            Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 30, 135-152.

            Retrieved from


(Journal article from library database without doi, current journal
homepage unavailable)
Lombardi, D.N., (1963). Peer group influence on attitude. Journal of

             Educational Sociology, 36, 307-309. Retrieved from



(Journal article from an online journal, without doi)
Carter, M. J., (2013). The moral identity and group affiliation. Current

              Research in Social Psychology, 21, 1-13. Retrieved from


References for Newspapers and Magazines

General Format: (p. 200) 
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. 

            Title of publication, volume number(issue number),

             page range.


For electronic magazine and newspaper sources include the
same elements as for print, and sufficient electronic retrieval
information to allow readers to locate the source. (p. 187)

Do not include retrieval dates unless the content
is likely to change over time. (p. 192)

When citing magazines, newspapers, and newsletters provide the exact date: (2013, May 23) (p. 185)

For online newspapers, provide the home page URL when you are able to search for an article and retrieve it (to help avoid broken URLs).

Example References:

(Online newspaper article)
Nadolny, T. L. (2013, December 20). Minister defrocked over

              same-sex marriage, will appeal. Retrieved

              January 13, 2014 from

(Online magazine article)
Glazer, S. (2013, July 19). Telecommuting. CQ Researcher, 23,

              621-644. Retrieved from


References for Online Communities

General Format: (p. 215)
Author A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [description of form].

            Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

Include the exact date of the posting if available.

Include the name of community where the content was posted
if this is not part of the URL where the content can be retrieved.

Use "Lecture notes" for description of form for lecture notes that
appeared directly on a Blackboard page. If you opened a file to
read the notes, use the file type as the format (PowerPoint slides,
PDF document, etc.). (p. 186 "Lecture notes")

Note: For a formal lecture italicize the title of lecture. Informal
discussion posts do not require italics. (p. 211 - italicize titles
of informally published works)


Example References:

(Faculty lecture notes from a JCC Blackboard class)
Riehm, R. (2013). Where have all the women gone? [Lecture notes].

            Retrieved from Jefferson Community College SOC 241

            Blackboard site:



References for Miscellaneous Online Sources

General Format: (p.191-192)
Personal or Corporate Author. (Date - format varies - usually copyright

            year or full date of last revision if available). Title of document.

            Retrieved from URL of specific document


When you site an entire website, the APA suggests
simply including the url of the home page in your

If no date is available use: (n.d.). (p. 185)

When a piece of information is unavailable for an APA
citation, use this handy table published by the APA
to help you complete the citation.

If you have additional information that you think will
assist readers with locating the source, include it.
(p. 193)

Do not include retrieval dates unless the content
is likely to change over time. (p. 192)

Example References:

(Specific page from a professional website)
American Sociological Association. (n.d.). What is sociology?

             Retrieved from

(Report from a Nongovernmental Organization) (p. 206)

Pew Research Center. (2013, December 11). 10 findings about

              women in the workplace. Retrieved from http://www.



Full date in above example included based on "When in doubt,
provide more information rather than less." (p. 193)

If the publisher of an online research report is not identified
as the author of the report, include the publisher as part of the
retrieval statement. (p. 205)

(Online sociology source)

Kearl, M. C. (2010). Gender and society. Retrieved from



(YouTube video)

Marshall, D. (2012, December 24). C. Wright Mills - The

              sociological imagination [Video file]. Retrieved from


  For YouTube video references, include the screen name in
brackets after the author's name if one is provided. Also,
include a description of the format in brackets after the title
and before the period [Video file]. See the APA style blog
for additional details: How to create a Reference for a YouTube

References for Online Reference Works

General format: (p. 205)
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In B. B. Editor (Ed.),

          Title of work (xxx ed.). Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx

For specific entries from online reference works include the
title of the entry in non-italics after the date. Also include the
word "In" and editor(s) if listed. If editors are not listed include
"In" directly before the title of the overall work. (p.205)

Include the base url of the site if the source is easy to locate
using the site's search feature. If the source is difficult to locate
using the search tool, include the entire url.

Example references:

(Online reference work)
Elwell, F. W. (n.d.). Idealogy. In Glossary of the Social Sciences

            Retrieved from



(Online reference work - Data table - corporate/government authored)
U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). Table 1. American indian and Alaska

            native population by tribe for the United States: 2010. In U.S.

            Census Bureau (Ed.), 2010 Census CPH-T-6. American Indian

            and Alaska native tribes in the United States and Puerto Rico:

            2010. Retrieved from



(Entry from a specialized reference database - without date or editor information)
World Trade Press. (n.d.). Finland: Life cycle. In A to Z the World.  

          Retrieved from


References for Personal Communications

For private emails, personal interviews, your own lecture notes from a professor's lecture, and other forms of data that cannot be accessed by readers, do not include a citation in the reference list.  See the In-text citation information for the proper format of the in-text citation for these sources. (p. 179)

References for Films and Television Programs

Motion Picture/DVD/Video Recording

General format: (p. 209)
Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion

          picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Example reference:
Seifert, J. (Producer & Director). (2010). Dive! [DVD]. United States: Compeller



Television Series Episode:

General format: (p. 209)
Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of episode

           [Television series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer), Series title.

           City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.

Example reference:
Shelly, B. & Ketchum, D. (Writers), & Bellamy, E. (Director). (1973). Tuttle

           [Television series episode]. In G. Reynolds (Producer), M*A*S*H.

           Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox Television.

Book References

General format: Print book(p. 202)
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Example reference:
Marsiglio, W., & Roy, K. (2012). Nurturing dads: Social initiatives

            for contemporary fatherhood. New York: Russell Sage



General format:  Electronic book  (APA Style Blog) 
Author, A. A.  (Year). Title of work [E-reader version, if applicable]. 

             Retrieved from doi: xxxxxx   

If a doi is not available, include a retrieval statement with the url
of the homepage of the book publisher.

Example:  Retrieved from http://xxxxxx
(If the book is not easily retrieved via the homepage, include the
complete url.) (p. 191)

If you access an ebook in a specific format and that information
is important, include it within brackets after the title and other
information in parentheses. example: [Kindle edition] (APA Style Blog) 


Example references:
(Electronic book)
Kaufman, P. (Ed.), (2006). Critical pedagogy in the classroom (2nd

             ed.). Retrieved from

             E-Books/BKctl/ ViewDetails/MID/26011/SKU/


(Electronic book - accessed via library databases)
Tuttle, C. (2012). Mexican women in American factories: Free trade 

and the exploitation on the border
. Retrieved from 


If you access an ebook from a library database, include the
home page url of the site if the site's search function allows you
to easily locate the work. (APA Style Blog)

Home page urls for JCC's JCC Library ebook databases:

ebrary Academic Complete:

EBSCO eBook Academic Collection:

Springer LInk:

EBSCO eBook Collection (formerly NetLibrary):

Humanities E-Books:

SUNY Press E Book Collection:


In-text Citations

The brief in-text citation directs your reader to the full reference for the source found in the alphabetical list at the end of the paper.

The in-text citation consists of the author(s)' surname(s) and the year in parentheses for a situation where you are paraphrasing the source. 

Please note:

If you are citing a specific part of a source, for example when you are directly quoting, you also need to include the page number (or other appropriate information - the chapter, table, or paragraph number for online sources without page numbers, etc.).

Further, if you include the name of the author(s) within your text, you do not need to include the name(s) in the in-text citation, only include the year (and page number information if required). In the event the year and author are included in the text do not include any additional citation.

When a citation includes multiple authors, note that when listing all elements in parenthesis you use an ampersand (&), and when including the author's names within the text, use the word "and".

If the reference includes the month and/or day in addition to the year (as is the case for a newspaper reference), you only include the year in the in-text citation. (p. 174)

General Format:

In-text citation for paraphrase:  
(Author surname, Year) 
Example:  (Riehm, 2013)

In-text Citation for direct quote:
(Author Surname, Year, page or paragraph number [if available]) 
Example:  (Riehm, 2013, para. 2)

Selected Variations:

Corporate author, no date provided on web page:

In-text citation for paraphrase:
(American Sociological Association, n.d.)

In-text citation for direct quote:
(American Sociological Association, n.d., para. 1)

Two authors:

In-text citation for paraphrase:
(Feld & Sharpe, 2005)

In-text citation for direct quote:
(Feld & Sharpe, 2005, p. 341)


Three/Four/Five authors:

In-text citation for first paraphrase:
(Hudd, Sardi & Lopriore, 2013) 

In-text citation for direct quote, first quote :
(Hudd, Sardi, & Lopriore, 2013, p. 3)

Note:  List all authors for the first in-text citation, for subsequent in-text citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.  

Example: (Hudd et al., 2013)

Six or more authors:
Note: Include first surname in listed in the work only, followed by et al. and date. Do this for all in-text citations.)

In-text citation for all paraphrases:
(Rogers et al., 2009)

In-text citation for all direct quotes:
(Rogers et al., 2009, p. 34)


See p. 177 in APA manual for a chart outlining how to do in-text citations for various numbers of authors.


In-text citation for a personal communication:

Do not include a reference list citation if the information you are citing will not be accessible to the reader, for example a personal email message, a face-to-face interview, etc.

To create the in-text citation include the source's initials and surname, the phrase "personal communication" and as specific a date as possible. (p. 179)

If the citation appears at the end of the sentence, include the period for the sentence after the citation.

(L. Tuttle, personal communication, February, 18, 2014)


In-text citation for a film or television episode (paraphrase or quote):
(Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)

General Format Information

The OWL at Purdue has produced a comprehensive guide devoted to helping students with APA format research projects.

Various sections of the OWL's guide can assist you with setting up your paper, formatting quotations correctly and other issues.

OWL at Purdue:  General Format

OWL at Purdue:  In-Text Citations: The Basics (includes information on formatting quotations)

OWL at Purdue:  APA Sample Paper


Citing Indirect (Secondary) Sources

Make every effort to locate the original source if possible.  If that is not possible, include a reference for the source you have in the References list. 

For the in-text citation you need to include author's surname of the original source that was mentioned in your secondary source and the year of publication for that original source in the text.  Follow this information with an in-text citation for the secondary source, beginning with the words "as cited in".

For example, if you are providing a direct quote that you found in an article written by Cynthia Coloton and published in 2012 that she quoted from a book written by Terry Brewer which was published in 1978, you would create a citation for Coloton's article and include it in your References list.  The in-text citation would look like this:

Brewer (1978) states "we are like the plebes at West Point, we do not lie, cheat or steal, or associate with those that do," (as cited in Coloton, 2012, p.14) as he describes the honor system of the organization.