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Criminal Justice: Citing APA

APA Template

References for Journal Articles

General Format: (p. 198)
Author, A. A., Author B.B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of

            article. Title of Journal, volume number, page 

            range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxx

Include doi number if one is available. Here is a
DOI Primer from the APA Style Blog.

If article was retrieved online and no doi number is
assigned, include the homepage url for the journal.
Include "Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx" (without
quotation marks and without a period at the end of the url)

For articles accessed via the library databases, follow
the guidelines above - include the doi if available, if not,
search for the journal homepage online and include its
url with a "Retrieved from" statement.  If you are citing an
journal that is no longer in print and does not have a
homepage, include the base url of the database that
you used to access the article. Do not include a period
after the url. (p. 192)
Example: Retrieved from

Include the issue number (non italics) in parentheses after
the volume number in the citation if the journal is paginated
separately by issue (page 1 is page 1 in each issue).
Example: 40(2)  [no space between volume
and issue number]

If an online journal does not provide page numbers place
a period after the volume and issue numbers.
(p. 200 online magazine example)

Example References:

(Journal article with doi assigned)
Hudd, S.S., Sardi, L.M., & Lopriore, M.T. (2013). Sociologists

            as writing instructors: Teaching students to think,

            teaching an emerging skill, or both? Teaching Sociology, 40,

            32-45. doi:10.1177/0092055X12458049


(Journal article from library database without doi, current journal
homepage available)
Sastry, J. (1999). Household structure, satisfaction and distress in India

            and the United States: A comparative cultural examination.

            Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 30, 135-152.

            Retrieved from


(Journal article from library database without doi, current journal
homepage unavailable)
Lombardi, D.N., (1963). Peer group influence on attitude. Journal of

             Educational Sociology, 36, 307-309. Retrieved from



(Journal article from an online journal, without doi)
Carter, M. J., (2013). The moral identity and group affiliation. Current

              Research in Social Psychology, 21, 1-13. Retrieved from


References for Miscellaneous Online Sources

General Format: (p.191-192)
Personal or Corporate Author. (Date - format varies - usually copyright

            year or full date of last revision if available). Title of document.

            Retrieved from URL of specific document


When you site an entire website, the APA suggests
simply including the url of the home page in your

If no date is available use: (n.d.). (p. 185)

When a piece of information is unavailable for an APA
citation, use this handy table published by the APA
to help you complete the citation.

If you have additional information that you think will
assist readers with locating the source, include it.
(p. 193)

Do not include retrieval dates unless the content
is likely to change over time. (p. 192)

Example References:

(Specific page from a professional website)
American Sociological Association. (n.d.). What is sociology?

             Retrieved from

(Report from a Nongovernmental Organization) (p. 206)

Pew Research Center. (2013, December 11). 10 findings about

              women in the workplace. Retrieved from http://www.



Full date in above example included based on "When in doubt,
provide more information rather than less." (p. 193)

If the publisher of an online research report is not identified
as the author of the report, include the publisher as part of the
retrieval statement. (p. 205)

(Online sociology source)

Kearl, M. C. (2010). Gender and society. Retrieved from



(YouTube video)

Marshall, D. (2012, December 24). C. Wright Mills - The

              sociological imagination [Video file]. Retrieved from


  For YouTube video references, include the screen name in
brackets after the author's name if one is provided. Also,
include a description of the format in brackets after the title
and before the period [Video file]. See the APA style blog
for additional details: How to create a Reference for a YouTube

References for Newspapers and Magazines

General Format: (p. 200) 
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. 

            Title of publication, volume number(issue number),

             page range.


For electronic magazine and newspaper sources include the
same elements as for print, and sufficient electronic retrieval
information to allow readers to locate the source. (p. 187)

Do not include retrieval dates unless the content
is likely to change over time. (p. 192)

When citing magazines, newspapers, and newsletters provide the exact date: (2013, May 23) (p. 185)

For online newspapers, provide the home page URL when you are able to search for an article and retrieve it (to help avoid broken URLs).

Example References:

(Online newspaper article)
Nadolny, T. L. (2013, December 20). Minister defrocked over

              same-sex marriage, will appeal. Retrieved

              January 13, 2014 from

(Online magazine article)
Glazer, S. (2013, July 19). Telecommuting. CQ Researcher, 23,

              621-644. Retrieved from


In-text Citations

The brief in-text citation directs your reader to the full reference for the source found in the alphabetical list at the end of the paper.

The in-text citation consists of the author(s)' surname(s) and the year in parentheses for a situation where you are paraphrasing the source. 

Please note:

If you are citing a specific part of a source, for example when you are directly quoting, you also need to include the page number (or other appropriate information - the chapter, table, or paragraph number for online sources without page numbers, etc.).

Further, if you include the name of the author(s) within your text, you do not need to include the name(s) in the in-text citation, only include the year (and page number information if required). In the event the year and author are included in the text do not include any additional citation.

When a citation includes multiple authors, note that when listing all elements in parenthesis you use an ampersand (&), and when including the author's names within the text, use the word "and".

If the reference includes the month and/or day in addition to the year (as is the case for a newspaper reference), you only include the year in the in-text citation. (p. 174)

General Format:

In-text citation for paraphrase:  
(Author surname, Year) 
Example:  (Riehm, 2013)

In-text Citation for direct quote:
(Author Surname, Year, page or paragraph number [if available]) 
Example:  (Riehm, 2013, para. 2)

Selected Variations:

Corporate author, no date provided on web page:

In-text citation for paraphrase:
(American Sociological Association, n.d.)

In-text citation for direct quote:
(American Sociological Association, n.d., para. 1)

Two authors:

In-text citation for paraphrase:
(Feld & Sharpe, 2005)

In-text citation for direct quote:
(Feld & Sharpe, 2005, p. 341)


Three/Four/Five authors:

In-text citation for first paraphrase:
(Hudd, Sardi & Lopriore, 2013) 

In-text citation for direct quote, first quote :
(Hudd, Sardi, & Lopriore, 2013, p. 3)

Note:  List all authors for the first in-text citation, for subsequent in-text citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.  

Example: (Hudd et al., 2013)

Six or more authors:
Note: Include first surname in listed in the work only, followed by et al. and date. Do this for all in-text citations.)

In-text citation for all paraphrases:
(Rogers et al., 2009)

In-text citation for all direct quotes:
(Rogers et al., 2009, p. 34)


See p. 177 in APA manual for a chart outlining how to do in-text citations for various numbers of authors.


In-text citation for a personal communication:

Do not include a reference list citation if the information you are citing will not be accessible to the reader, for example a personal email message, a face-to-face interview, etc.

To create the in-text citation include the source's initials and surname, the phrase "personal communication" and as specific a date as possible. (p. 179)

If the citation appears at the end of the sentence, include the period for the sentence after the citation.

(L. Tuttle, personal communication, February, 18, 2014)


In-text citation for a film or television episode (paraphrase or quote):
(Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)