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SUNY Jefferson

APA Style - 7th ed.: APA Style

References for Journal Articles

General Format: (p. 317, 7th ed.)
Author, A. A., Author B.B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of

            article. Title of Journal, volume number, page 


Include doi number if one is available and include the
doi resolver prefix:
Here is a DOI Primer from the APA Style Blog.

For articles accessed via the library databases, include a
doi if provided. If one is not, do not include a url, simply cite
it as you would the print version. (p. 299, 7th ed.)

If article was retrieved in electronic format from a source
OTHER than a library database and no doi number is
assigned, include the most direct url for the article.
(p. 298-299, 7th ed.)
Do not include "Retrieved from" and do not
include a period at the end of the url.

Include the issue number (non italics) in parentheses after
the volume number for all periodicals that have issue numbers.
(p. 294, 7th ed.)
Example: 40(2)  [no space between volume
and issue number]

If an online periodical does not provide volume, issue, and/or page
numbers you omit them if they are not in the work being cited..
(p. 294, 7th ed.)

Provide surnames and initials for up to 20 authors and include an
ampersand (&) before the final author name.  (p. 286, 7th ed.)

Place commas and periods inside closing quotation marks.  (p. 157, 7th ed.)

If an article has an article number, provide the article number instead of the page range, proceeded by the word Article, capitalized. (p. 294, 7th ed.)

If an article with an article number also has numbered pages, those page numbers may be used in the in-text citation, but do not appear in the reference list entry. (p. 295, 7th ed.)


Example References:

(Journal article with doi assigned, three authors)
Hudd, S.S., Sardi, L.M., & Lopriore, M.T. (2013). Sociologists

            as writing instructors: Teaching students to think,

            teaching an emerging skill, or both? Teaching Sociology, 40,



(Journal article from library database without doi)
Sastry, J. (1999). Household structure, satisfaction and distress in India

            and the United States: A comparative cultural examination.

            Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 30, 135-152.

(Journal article from a library database with an article number
and a doi)
Jerrentrup, A., Mueller, T., Glowalla, U., Herder, M., Hendrichs, N.,

             Neubauer, A., & Schaefer, J.R. (2018). Teaching medicine

             with the help of "Dr. House." PLOS ONE,13(3), Article e0193972.



(Journal article from an online journal, without doi)
Carter, M. J., (2013). The moral identity and group affiliation. Current

              Research in Social Psychology, 21, 1-13.


References for Newspapers and Magazines

General Format: (p. 320, 7th ed.) 
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. 

            Title of publication, volume number(issue number),

             page range.


For electronic magazine and newspaper sources include the
same elements as for print, as well as a doi if provided,
or the most direct url to non library database sources online.
 (p. 298-299, 7th ed. and p. 320, 7th ed.)

For articles accessed via the library databases, include a
doi if provided. If one is not, do not include a url, simply cite
it as you would the print version. (p. 299, 7th ed.)

Do not include retrieval dates unless the content
is likely to change over time. (p. 290, 7th ed.)

When citing magazines, newspapers, and newsletters provide
the exact date: (2019, May 23) (p. 320, 7th ed.)


Example References:

(Online newspaper article)
Nadolny, T. L. (2013, December 19). Minister defrocked over

              same-sex marriage, will appeal. Philadelphia Inquirer.





(Magazine article from library database without a doi)
Smith, E. E. (2013). Life on the island. New Criterion, 32(2), 57.



References for Online Communities

General Format: (p. 347, 7th ed.)
Author A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [description of form].

            Community name. http://www.xxxxx

Include the exact date of the posting if available.

Include the name of the online community where the content
was posted.

Use "Lecture notes" for description of form for lecture notes that
appeared directly on a Blackboard page. If you opened a file to
read the notes, use the file type (enclosed in brackets) as the
format: [PowerPoint slides],[PDF document], etc.

If the content is from a learning management system, include
the name of the site and login url.
(p. 347, 7th ed.)

Note: Both formal lecture titles and informal discussion post titles 
should be italicized. Informal posts titles consist of up to the first 
20 words of the post. Include a bracketed description as well.
(p. 293, 7th ed.)


Example References:

(Faculty lecture notes from a JCC Blackboard class)
Riehm, R. (2019). Where have all the women gone? [Lecture notes].

            SOC 241 Blackboard@JCC.



References for Miscellaneous Online Sources

General Format: (p.351, 7th ed.)
Personal or Corporate Author. (Date - format varies - the date posted
            or full date of last update is preferred
). Title of document.
            Site name. https://xxxxxxxxxx  (URL of specific document)


Omit site name if the author name and site name are the same.

Do not use copyright dates found in the footer as this does not
indicate when the content was published. If no date is available
for the document you are citing, use: (n.d.) in both the reference
and in-text citation. (p. 289, 7th ed.; p. 291, 7th ed.)

When you site an entire website, the APA suggests
simply including the url of the home page in your
text. (p. 350, 7th ed.)

Include a retrieval date only when the content is designed
to change over time. (Facebook, a website that changes
frequently, etc.)
(p. 350, 7th ed.)

Example References:

(Specific page from a professional website)
American Sociological Association. (n.d.). What is sociology?


(Report from a Nongovernmental Organization)
Pew Research Center. (2013, December 11). 10 findings about

              women in the workplace.


(Online sociology source)
Kearl, M. C. (n.d.). Gender and society. A sociological tour through


(YouTube video)
Marshall, D. (2012, December 24). C. Wright Mills - The

              sociological imagination [Video]. YouTube.


Note:  For YouTube video references, include the screen name in
brackets after the author's name if one is provided. Also,
include a description of the format in brackets after the title
and before the period [Video]. (p. 344, 7th ed.)

References for Online Reference Works (Section updated 2/18/20)

General format: (p. 328, 7th ed.)
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In B. B. Editor (Ed.),

          Title of work (xxx ed.). http://xxxxxxxx

For specific entries from online reference works include the
title of the entry in non-italics after the date. Also include the
word "In" and editor(s) if listed. If editors are not listed include
"In" directly before the title of the overall work. (p. 328, 7th ed.)

Include a retrieval date in the event the work is updated, but not
archived. (Meaning you cannot link directly to the version you
accessed.) (p. 328, 7th ed.)

Include the name of a database when it provides
original information not published elsewhere. (p. 297, 7th ed.)

Example references:

(Online reference work)
Elwell, F. W. (n.d.). Idealogy. In Glossary of the Social Sciences

            Retrieved February 17, 2020, from



(Online reference work - Data table - corporate/government authored)
U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). Table 1. American Indian and Alaska

            native population by tribe for the United States: 2010 [Data table].

            In U.S. Census Bureau (Ed.), 2010 Census CPH-T-6. American

            Indian and Alaska native tribes in the United States and Puerto Rico:




(Entry from a specialized reference database - without date or editor information)
World Trade Press. (n.d.). Finland: Historical timeline. In A to z the world.  

          Retrieved February 18, 2020, from


References for Personal Communications

For private emails, personal interviews, your own lecture notes from a professor's lecture, and other forms of data that cannot be accessed by readers, do not include a citation in the reference list.  See the In-text citation information for the proper format of the in-text citation for these sources. (p. 260, 7th ed.)

References for Films and Television Programs

Motion Picture/DVD/Video Recording:

General format: (p. 342-343, 7th ed.)
Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of film

          [Film; include DVD version information here if appropriate]. Studio.

Example reference:
Seifert, J. (Director). (2010). Dive! [Film; expanded edition DVD].

          Compeller Pictures.


Television Series Episode:

General format: (p. 343, 7th ed.)
Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of episode

           (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer),

           Series title. Production company; Studio or distributor.

Example reference:
Shelly, B. & Ketchum, D. (Writers), & Bellamy, E. (Director). (1973). Tuttle

           (Season 1, Episode 15) [TV series episode]. In G. Reynolds

           (Producer), M*A*S*H. 20th Century Fox Television.


Book References

General format: Ebook without a DOI from a library database
OR Print book (p. 321, 7th ed.)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Example reference:
Marsiglio, W., & Roy, K. (2012). Nurturing dads: Social initiatives

            for contemporary fatherhood. Russell Sage Foundation.


General format: Book with a DOI
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.


Ebooks without a doi, yet have a non-database url, does call for the url to be added after the publisher.
(p. 321, 7th ed.)


General format: Chapter in an edited book without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version
(p. 326, 7th ed.)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor,

     & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (xth ed., pp. xx-xx).


Example reference:

Cacchione, P.Z. (2021). Sensory changes in the older adult. In M. Boltz,

        E. Capezuti, D. Zwicker, & T. Fulmer (Eds.), Evidence-based

        geriatric nursing protocols for best practice (6th ed., Chapter 8).

        Springer Publishing Company.


If an Ebook edition has no page numbers, provide a way for the reader

to locate the content. (In our example, Chapter 8 is clearly labeled as

the area being cited.) (p. 273, 7th ed.)



Book with content from additional contributors

In some cases, especially nursing textbooks and manuals, a book may include content written by individuals not listed as authors of the work. This is a different situation from a reference work that has been edited by one or more and then having individual authors for specific chapters or entries.

In these situations, if you are citing a chapter (or a forward or an introduction) that was written by a contributor not listed as an author, cite the entire book in your References list. In the text of your project, give credit to the contributor in the narrative, along with an in-text citation providing additional details.

Example reference:

Harding, M.M., Kwong, J., Roberts, D., Hagler, D., & Reinisch, C. (2020).

       Lewis’s Medical-Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of

       Clinical Problems
 (11th. ed.). Elsevier. 

Example in-text citation with narrative credit for the contributor -- citing material found on page 1062 of Chapter 46, Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease, by Hazel Dennison:


As stated by Dennison, "While patients with hyperkalemia are often asymptomatic, some may have weakness with severe hyperkalemia" (Harding, et al., 2020, Chapter 46, p. 1062).


Citing in this manner gives proper credit to the author of the chapter, yet provides an accurate citation in the References list.


In-text Citations

The brief in-text citation directs your reader to the full reference for the source found in the alphabetical list at the end of the paper.

An in-text, parenthetical citation consists of the author(s)' surname(s) and the year in parentheses for a situation where you are paraphrasing the source. A narrative in-text citation includes the author(s)' surnames in a sentence, immediately followed by the year in parentheses. (p. 263, 7th ed.)

Please note:

If you are citing a specific part of a source, for example when you are directly quoting, you also need to include the page number (or other appropriate information - the chapter, table, or paragraph number for online sources without page numbers, etc.). (p. 264, 7th ed.)

If you are citing content you are paraphrasing, page numbers or other related information is usually not included, HOWEVER, you may include the additional information if you think it will help your reader locate the information within a long or complicated work. (p. 269, 7th ed.)

When a citation includes two authors, note that when listing all elements in parenthesis you use an ampersand (&), and when including the author's names within the text, use the word "and."  (p. 266, 7th ed.)

If the reference includes the month and/or day in addition to the year (as is the case for a newspaper reference), you only include the year in the in-text citation. (p. 262, 7th ed.)

General Format:

In-text citation for paraphrase:  
(Author surname, Year) 
Example:  (Riehm, 2013)

In-text Citation for direct quote:
(Author Surname, Year, page or paragraph number [if available]) 
Example:  (Riehm, 2013, para. 2)

Selected Variations:

Two authors:
In-text citation for paraphrase:
(Feld & Sharpe, 2005)

In-text citation for direct quote:
(Feld & Sharpe, 2005, p. 341)


Three or more authors:
Note: Include first surname in listed in the work only, followed by et al. and date. Do this for all in-text citations.)
In-text citation for all paraphrases:
(Rogers et al., 2009)

In-text citation for all direct quotes:
(Rogers et al., 2009, p. 34)

See p. 266 in APA 7th. manual for a chart outlining how to do in-text citations for various numbers of authors.
(p. 266, 7th ed.)


Corporate author, no date provided on web page:

In-text citation for paraphrase:
(American Sociological Association, n.d.)

In-text citation for direct quote:
(American Sociological Association, n.d., para. 1)

(p. 288 & 291, 7th ed.)

You can choose to abbreviate well-known organization names, after spelling out the organization's name the first time it appears and then including the abbreviation in parentheses if first appearing in a narrative in-text citation:  The American Library Association (ALA, 2019) provides ...

or within brackets if it first appears in a parenthetical in-text citation:  (American Library Association [ALA], 2019)
(p. 268, 7th ed.)


In-text citation for a personal communication: 

Do not include a reference list citation if the information you are citing will not be accessible to the reader, for example a personal email message, a face-to-face interview, etc.

To create the in-text citation include the source's initials and surname, the phrase "personal communication" and as specific a date as possible. (p. 260, 7th ed.)

If the citation appears at the end of the sentence, include the period for the sentence after the citation.

(L. Tuttle, personal communication, February, 18, 2020)

In-text citation for a film or television episode (paraphrase or quote):
(Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)
(p. 343, 7th ed.)

Citing Indirect (Secondary, per APA) Sources

Make every effort to locate the original source if possible.  If that is not possible, include a reference for the source you have in the References list. 

For the in-text citation you need to include author's surname of the original source that was mentioned in your secondary source and the year of publication for that original source in the text.  Follow this information with an in-text citation for the secondary source, beginning with the words "as cited in".

For example, if you are providing a direct quote that you found in an article written by Cynthia Coloton and published in 2012 that she quoted from a book written by Terry Brewer which was published in 1978, you would create a citation for Coloton's article and include it in your References list.  The in-text citation would look like this:

Brewer (1978) states "we are like the plebes at West Point, we do not lie, cheat or steal, or associate with those that do," (as cited in Coloton, 2012, p.14) as he describes the honor system of the organization.

(p 63 & 258, 7th ed.)